Guide BUCKMINSTER HOLDS COURT

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Hull Cal. State Farm General Ins. Superior Court 6 Cal. Thus, an insurer may have a duty to defend even when it ultimately has no obligation to indemnify, either because no damages are awarded in the underlying action or because the actual judgment is for damages not covered by the policy.

If coverage depends on an unresolved dispute over a factual question, the very existence of that dispute would establish a possibility of coverage and thus a duty to defend. This includes claims falling outside the scope of the insuring clause, or within an express exclusion from coverage, or barred by statutory or public policy limitations. Thus, as pertinent here, Coverage B provided as follows: As also indicated, the Estate asserts two fundamental contentions arguing that such conclusion was wrong: Braum Cal.

And whether an exclusion meets the requirement is a question of law. We decide that question of law favorably to Alterra. CG 00 01 12 Lesher Cal. Superior Court 16 Cal. Carter 17 Cal. Aroa, supra, Cal. March 19, , C U. National Union Fire Ins. May 16, , C: There, a model named Radcliffe filed suit against Aroa Marketing, alleging that it had made unauthorized use of her image and likeness, diminishing her marketability and publicity value and depriving her of her right of publicity.

The trial court sustained the demurrer, and the Court of Appeal affirmed, in language strikingly applicable here: Thus, the right of publicity is an intellectual property right, and right of publicity claims would be excluded from coverage under the intellectual property rights exclusion. Bertani Cal.

Buckminster

Moreover, to the extent Radcliffe is claiming use of her likeness constituted an endorsement, that too falls within the category of intellectual property claims listed in the exclusion, such as trademark. The issue there arose in a case where a former employee Foust took confidential information when he went to work for the insured, South Bay Construction Company South Bay. South Bay was sued along with its employee and tendered defense to its insurer, St. Paul, which refused it. South Bay then sued St. Paul for breach of contract, bad faith, and declaratory relief.

Both parties moved for summary judgment or summary adjudication. The trial court ruled for St. The Court of Appeal affirmed, concluding that the underlying lawsuit did not allege advertising injury. Under this provision no coverage is afforded if the alleged injury results from misappropriation of trade secrets or violation of other intellectual property rights or laws. We therefore agree with the superior court that St. Aroa used the term. So, too, the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals. And the leading treatise. Whatever the variation in the wording, the exclusion there did not expressly state that it applied to invasion of privacy or right of publicity claims.

The Estate asserts that to apply the intellectual property exclusion must specify each type of excluded intellectual property claim. But the Estate cites no authority supporting this proposition. No court has ever made such a distinction, and again the Estate cites no supporting authority. And I then identified man as having a function in Universe. And, in order to get him ready for it he had to go thru being born naked, and absolutely ignorant, and having to make trial and error to get somewhere just to learn the generalized principles so that he could really then employ the principles, which no other creature could, to make it possible for him to deal in larger and larger parts of the Universe.

And he could get into environments he had never been in before, and get on appropriately to get more and more information, which is his function to process and to solve problems. So we have, then, all the biological life here to support and make possible that activity. We have the, we found that the mammals couldn't take any of the sun radiation through their skin to keep the energizing, re-energizing, which we all have to have, so that we remember then I gave you then the pattern of the trees being rooted in order to be able to do what they're doing to get the water, and not to blow away.

Then we found that because the vegetation was rooted it couldn't procreated with other vegetation, therefore we have all the insects and many, many mobile creatures designed to traffic back and forth between all the vegetation to cross-pollinate them, so that the whole system regenerates. We had, then, the big thing is what we call the ecology, and it is an orbital affair it is a cyclic affair over this way, and this way. But in order to get creatures to do these things, they are given chromosomic instructions.

They are designed structurally, mechanically, beautifully and given the chromosomic drive to go off after the honey. I had then man going after his honey, it's called "money honey" something he could exchange for goods, and inadvertently having his hunger, but also being having a procreative urge, he inadvertently made children got side effects.

And this increases his responsibility so he is going out after this "money honey" more, trying to take care of these side effects. And, inadvertently, then, he begins to do the things he's supposed to do. I gave you then, man with an enormous fixation on the degreeness but the "precession" and the orbiting is the normal. And that's what the ecology is, and this is eternally regenerative Universe, and all ecology on our planet, then, to support the human and human mind's activity to really deal in principles of Universe and to solve local problems in pure principle is a very important function.

So I hope that I have now brought you back to really feeling the normality of the ecology. And the normality of all the orbiting whether it is the orbiting of the electron around the nucleus orbit, orbit, orbit. This is the normal of Universe. All the inner effects of all, or most bodies in motion, and all other bodies in motion in Universe is all "precessional. But there was also involved then, in the picture I gave you of the hammer thrower accelerating, it was at horizontal.

That is simply, again, if you accelerate an object on our planet enough, it tends to be independent. That's why a bicycle lying down on the ground, has fallen over, it yields to gravity. But the minute you get on it and as soon as you start going along, the faster you go, the more vertical you are. If you get enough acceleration, you're going to leave the earth. That's all you need. In other words, you tend to be leaving the earth.

The acceleration being given to those balls by the hammer thrower, was such that a gravity was no longer important. They were really tending to be free in Universe. So, I hope I've made clear all the items that need to be clear to make "precession" seem to you normal. And, remember yesterday when I gave you this, suddenly the octahedron, and just precessed the effect on that octahedron a one pull effect would precess that one vector, and it would turn like that and it went from a fourness to a threeness.

And went from being a generalized case to a specialized case. And really probably every time we go into the special Nature reserves one increment, and so forth. This is how we have the "invisible" where all these special cases are finite and discontinuous. You see how they can be. Now, I'm going to go into another area, and we haven't been going on long enough for a break. So, I talked to you about my maps the other night, and I will not as yet go into how these maps are designed. We'll do that as we get into the Synergetic Geometry and so forth.

But I do want to come back to man on our planet. I have given you the exercise of thinking about little man on our 8, mile globe. And that the highest mountains and deepest oceans the aberrations could not be seen on a polished globe like this. The actual fact is that the ink with which you print the water on this globe is deeper than the water by a good deal. And, so little you and I would be very invisible on such a phenomena. Little you and I are in physical stature, having this mental capability that we looked into, to take the inventory of all the chemical elements present in a ll.

That human beings then that tiny little you and I are really able to deal with these magnificent-scale affairs, and to get the kind of information we are then having. And coming then to the development of human beings on board of our planet, which I went into a little with you the other day. I would like to go through, going from that concept of being born naked and have to be placed where you would not be eaten up or freeze to death. And the coral atolls of the South Pacific being the most favorable possible place where you could be born.

Where there would be no big animals to eat you up, and so forth. I personally this is highly speculative what I'm going to talk to you now about. Because all the archaeologists were digging and unburying and uncovering old cities, and so forth; and putting together pieces. But what struck me very, very powerfully, because I was a sailor, was the relative ignorance in the building of the land, we just piled stone on stone in contradistinction to the what you really had to know about in order to be able to build a successful boat, going from just a raft or a canoe or outrigger to a big, deep ribbed, ships carrying incredible cargoes around our planet.

Realizing, I'll give you we went through the other day tensile strengths of mortar, you remember; and stone being 50, pounds of compression and only 50 in tensile. And as you get into the metals that had high tensile capability. Historically in building, man then, could gravity just helped him he could roll the stone over and get it to nest on other stones some kind of way chip it so it would lay there, and gravity held the whole thing together. And the stone was relatively imperishable, so they seemed to last a long time. The great walls that were built by human beings that way would crumble down when earthquakes came but otherwise they were pretty secure, until an enemy might storm it, and finally be able to knock down your wall.

But this is the way things are built on the land. And the bigger and heavier and higher, the more secure the people felt. And so we see all those castles and this kind of building. You could finally learn to have a stone corbel out a little way so you could get some fairly interesting designs after you are deeply familiar with it, but you still have to play with gravity as sort of a game to be sure she doesn't tip too far this way you need a stone in here. So, human beings, then, dealing in almost completely compression, and very poor tension capability.

However, I want you to think about what a beam is. I'm going to make, my hands are going to be a beam. My two arms are walls. I've got a beam between the two walls. I've got a load on top here, and as the load comes on top the bottom tries to open up, it starts to go like that way the top goes into compression and the bottom goes into tension.

And the tension is not great, so it just comes apart and the whole thing comes down very quickly. You see that alright? So, when the Greeks, then, wanted to do some spanning, they had to get their columns very close to each other, and then they could get a very deep block of stone because you have your principle of leverage.

This top, here, is the fulcrum. And the deeper the stone is, the longer your lever arm so that you know the longer your lever arm the less effort, so if the stone is deep enough the tension can hold it together. But as it gets shorter and shorter the tension necessary to offset this has to be greater and greater. Can you feel that alright? This is a lever here.

Buckminster Fuller

So the deeper it is, the less effort to hold it together. So the Greeks used a very, very deep stone and they only could span a very short distance between those columns. Go and look at the Parthenon and you'll see, and those stones up there are cracking too on the bottom you'll see they're trying to come apart. So we see go to very ancient like Mycenae and they have a very small gate and a very deep stone. When they wanted to have any greater span, they had to go to wood. So we find that in all the antiquities all these verticals, because the verticals are the way gravity is holding it together.

The minute that you go horizontal, gravity is trying to break it apart. So beautiful gravity holding it together vertically, this way she works against it. Our old friend "angular valving of gravity" here, and so forth. We have the human beings, then, using wood. Because wood the masonry I said is only 50 pounds per square inch, and with wood you could get up to 10 you get very fancy woods, like birch, very special swatches of birch you might get up to 25, But the tensile strengths of wood go 5,, 7, up to l0, But l0, is very strong wood in tensile strength.

But 10, as against 50 is very high. But wood is perishable. It rotted and burned and so forth. So, in antiquity we have all the verticals where gravity is holding together the stone, and the horizontals have gone if they were of any span at all, because they were of wood and rotted out. And so, as I said, if an earthquake came along, the whole thing went down. There is really no important brilliance here, really. You have a great, powerful general and enough slaves, and captives and so forth, they simply keep piling on the stone.

There may be some artistic character around, so you'd have him chip the stone a little fancy for you. Or the General wants his name written in the stone there, or some picture of him. So there were people they'd have to do some superficial decorating, but engineering wise it was a matter of pure muscle and not really mind at all.

But this business of tension begins to introduce something to you, and the principle that principle of leverage we talked to you about is a "generalized principle," and has very important discrete usability. So we come to a ship of the sea. There were grapes to be eaten, there were bananas, whatever it is.

People could eat and get going. And the people continually find themselves, where nature went against them there was a draught that year, things didn't grow that year, and so they were suddenly in mortal peril. And we went into the development of the city state or these stone walls. What the people who did find a very favorable place did, like Mycenae, and the very beautiful Argolean planes there, they had found a hill in the middle of the valley quite high. It had a well. And they built a great stone wall up there. And then stone grain bins, and when they saw the enemy coming thru the pass they took all the food and put it inside, and they scorched the fields.

So the people that came outside, and they were very hungry already, you can only go for 30 days without food approximately, so they just watched the people outside wilt away. We found then, other people found that the water had fish, and you could live on that but the water might look very beautiful down at the harbor one day, and suddenly they were out there in the sea and an enormous storm comes. A boat, and you've got a big wave. And the boat is then a beam between the two waves. Can you see that alright. So the boat is then being a beam my arms are the peaks of two waves, and my boat is between the two.

So it is trying to do this. A minute later the wave is in the middle of the boat, and it wants to go that way it is being racked this way and that way. Fantastic stresses, incredible stresses. Now, the difference between going to sea and being on the land is incredible.

Number one, I gave you then, remember, crystallines, liquids, and gases. And the crystallines were triple bonded three times, a lot of tension to hold them together there. The liquids were hinged so they distribute loads, and the gases were universally jointed so they distributed loads and were really compressible, and the liquids were non-compressible. When we then, get the amount of energy necessary to disturb the crystalline in Universe, it takes three times as much to disturb the crystalline as it does the gases.

And only twice as much to disturb the liquid as it does to move the gases. In Universe, one of the most interesting parts of the great patterns of energy is, I gave you yesterday, the degrees of freedom. The way energies can get, with any given move, when it is your turn to play, you get six positive and six negative moves you can make. And you can get way out. And I showed you how we've got distance differentials entering into the total experience. And, so we have energies dispersed, and we have expanding Universe.

We've been into our "syntropy" and "entropy" and so forth. I'd like then to come to the thinking of fundamental experience which is the relation to wave and frequency the big ones. Fundamental to energy and quantum mechanics, you start with, the Universe has a given amount of energy. And you can invest that energy into a lot of little things, or a few big things. You're going to be able to get it back again and reinvest it.

But eternally the Universe has that the big things cannot happen as often, so the novae then are really very infrequent, earthquakes are not so very frequent, mosquitoes are very high frequency. The smaller the more frequent, that's the way of energy behaviors. So that the earthquakes occur on the land, rarely do you have enough energy or motion or work to break the triple bond, but very frequently we have enough energy to disturb the water only double bond, and even more frequently do we have enough energy to disturb the air.

So we find then the waves in the crystalline, the earthquake wave is just really a little tremor a very small wave. But our waves in the water can get up to as much as a ten-story building in height, and the waves in the air get up to a mile high. So it takes relatively little energy to make enormous disturbances in the atmosphere, and relatively small to make disturbances in liquid, but rarely, rarely enough to have earthquakes. Sea quake, every day almost, and air quake all the time.

Now, the interface between the liquid and the gases, and this one with very high frequency untoward enormous stresses are operative so you just cannot go out with a ship on the sea unless you really develop an engineering capability dealing in principles in every kind of way, really understanding tension and compression in an extraordinary way, understanding hydraulics and pneumatics in very fundamental ways.

You can close all the shutters on the cottage and say that's the end of it. At sea you can't shut down. It's a twenty-four hour job. You are just simply continually coming to magnitudes of force interaction with you and your ship, that you've just got to be on the job so And then live twenty-four hours, and only say, if we had a long day, maybe had a 12 hour day on the land, you'd have at least twice as much experience at sea, because you have 24 hours out of everyday of experience instead of twelve.

So the experience piled up very rapidly, and the severity of the untoward events very high frequency, therefore, those people who did come back were very aware that there were very many who didn't come back, and they went into anticipation, this is our friend "comprehensive anticipatory design science," what are all the things you are going to have to anticipate? Furthermore your ship you had to carry, if you were going to get any distance, you had to carry lots of food. And it brings you into all kinds of problems supplying that crew.

So we find the ship going very rapidly, differentiating into pure tension and pure compression. Getting into what does make flexible cables. We've been into a lot of that. I've been into necklaces and structures with you. So you understand what I'm saying here. But the ship really very quickly accelerated man's familiarity with differentiated tension and compressioning, and angular controls, leverage advantages, whatever it may be.

And you find the earliest known picture of a ship is one on the caves of one of the priests in Egypt, and that first ship, if you are an engineer will recognize she is a good size ship. Her complexity technologically was several masts. The tensionings and the compressionings and the triangulations that are in it, are just phenomenal. At that time the most and the tools that are depicted on the walls of that Egyptian priest were very, very advanced tools for making the ship in contradistinction to anything being used on land at that time a wooden plow.

The tools of the land were just childish in comparison to the tools of the sea. That ship, quite clearly as anybody gets into such matters as the evolutionary rate at which technology does improve, would realize that that ship had been in development for 50, years. She was a fantastically mature affair. I'm not saying that ship, that was built there, but the information that went in there that was actually coped with and employed in pure principle to make that ship, was of thousands of years accumulation.

And number one on the land, take you get this seaquake. If a flood comes long you are completely licked. On the sea, it's a flood all the time. So you're designed for a flood and you'd better stay on top of it. And your castle won't stay on top of it. So you can't have that stone kind of thing out there on the sea. Gradually I became, as more I studied these matters, the more I became aware that the science and engineering of building of ships of the sea, and later of the sky, were thousands of years ahead of the art of just building on the land anything that just had weight and was strong and didn't tip over, with gravity holding it together.

So, even as I grew up, we had the insurance companies saying, you know, "strong as the rock of Gibraltar. And if we don't get over that idea of the inertia and society is as yet not over it, the last great walls were those of the Maginot line and suddenly, boom! What happened was that in World War I the submarine coming along. The tank and the submarine were coming out of the sea.

They are technology of the sea. And they simply climbed up on the up to this time you couldn't carry any great cargoes on the land at all. The great railroads began to carry great cargoes, but you had to have the great canals you had to float things, but with the ocean you can have incredibly large ships. Once you load your cargo you can get it thousands of miles out and ships could carry loads that human beings couldn't carry on their backs, and they couldn't carry on the backs of animals. Sir Halford MacKinder showed the English long ago that when the railroad came along, they started the marine railway.

The first railway was the marine railway, and they built the ship to let it down on the sea, using gravity to accelerate it in, and you had, then, with the marine railway the ship could tip over.

Buckminster Fuller at MIT - Spaceship Earth - 1979

But they can then double the idea so that your ship won't tip over, and this became the railroad, and they ran the tracks back on the land, developed the steam engine for the ship, and they said put it on the dock engine and ran it back on the land. So Halford MacKinder showed the English that the railroads were the ship technology coming back up on the land this advanced engineering really coming up on the land, and he warned the English that the coastline was not where they thought it was. Because of the ability to carry great cargoes suddenly up on the land. But the World War II tanks, and so forth, what was called the Blitzkrieg, was the water technology coming up on the land.

Because on the land you had siege, it was a trench war you just stay in, siege, siege, siege. But what happened long, long ago, was that human beings were developing city states, and there were successful city states being such as Mycenae. Sometimes they became so successful that they had a chance to also get into producing boats, and probably the fall of Troy is the beginning of the city state masters building ships, and the Greeks had these ships, and they were able then to come up to the castle.

Up to this time, the people outside the walls they would be starved. But suddenly the invaders came along with ships, and the ships could keep going off the people inside of Troy just had the most food and they thought it was just going to be great, and the people outside were just going to starve. But the people who were coming along were not starving. They had ships bringing in incredible cargoes.

So suddenly the "line of supply" became to be the new grand strategy of who was going to survive on our planet. We find then, at the time, you look in Italy all those great castellos commanding the different valleys. And their great overlords giving themselves any name they wanted to.

And, suddenly, the man who has been developing ships, coming into he's able to carry enormous canons and so forth he comes into the harbor in Italy, and there's a great castello there, and he just let it have a couple of shots. And he says now, I don't want you to know anymore about my grand strategy, because, at sea three fourth of the earth being covered by water, the people who then built ships, and built them to carry great cargoes from great distances it was an enormous, extraordinary risk to do it, did not tell the other man where they were going, or when they would be back, or what they were going to have on board, because the ocean is so big, and with the curvature of the earth, you'd say that man's down under the horizon 14 miles away from a sailing ship.

And so that the sea kept his secrets. The people then who went to sea, and were going to produce enormous wealth by the "synergetics" of getting resources that exist over here that don't exist at home, and other resources that exist at home that seem to have no usefulness and they bring these two together and suddenly they produce something of enormous advantage, and great wealth is then generated. So, when I was young, the expression still was very, very prevalent, because I actually grew up with just the tail end of the clipper ship times.

And the saying, "Just wait til my ship comes in" one ship in and it's a fortune. So, it was an enormous big risk to build that thing, but if she could endure, it would work. But you didn't want at no time at all when you go to sea, you find that the people who were able to build the very best ships had to be very powerful overlords on the land. Because they had to be able to say, "I'm going to build a ship. And I want all you metal workers to come work on my ship. I want all you people who have been sewing and making clothes, I want you to get to making sails for my ship.

They had to command the whole economy, and they had to say, now all you people that grow food do it for the people who are working on my ship. It had to be a very powerful overlord. And to consolidate they had to have very good advisor, very good designer who was well appraised of the experiences of others before us. So he builds his great risky ship. Then there is another overlord , who isn't nearly as powerful, and he's very jealous of him, so he says "This is easy, I'm going to just build a smaller ship, and I'm going to wait outside the harbor until the night before he gets home, and we'll just take him over.

And, simply a question, on the water incidentally, at no time historically could the people on the land anywhere enforce their laws out on the water any further than you could throw something a projectile and the three mile limit and so forth. But three quarters of the earth is outside the law, and the people who then lived in that water-ocean world really became world people were inherently outlaws. And you find that the top ones are called sovereigns, and the other ones are just pirates. So the great pirate became sovereign and gained a great deal of respect; in fact they told everyone in the world just exactly how you carry on.

And they set the standards. But finally what came about that changed a lot of this is mathematics. The, I did not talk to you about the Arabic numerals, did I? The Arabic numerals and the Roman numerals. You're familiar with the Roman numerals, but did you ever try to do any multiplication with Roman numerals? How did you get on? You don't get on. The Roman numerals were invented again I've talked about power structure. The power structure man could have anybody, he could be very ignorant, a slave and say, I want you to stand here, and every time a sheep goes by, make a scratch.

It was a scoring system and it had to do with things that kept life going. This was the wealth. So every time a bag of wheat goes by you make a scratch. And then there was a supervisor, and he'd come along and make a secondary kind of his check mark. This is why we have the "v" check mark today.

So, we have the scoring, and people, the whole Mediterranean world, the Roman empire is using this scoring system. Not until A. So it was easier to go like that than to make three marks. And they were just thought of that way. The Arabic numerals, however, I'm quite they had the cipher, and in the scoring system you can't eat "no sheep" so you didn't need a scoring symbol for "no sheep. There was no need for it. So the cipher had absolutely no meaning to these people who used roman numerals because it was a scoring system. So they thought that the cipher of the Arabic numerals was some sort of a decoration, sort of a period that you put at the end of your work or whatever it is.

And, so the Arabic numerals, then, came into the Roman world, the total Mediterranean world in A. It was not until years later, A. Now, my own speculative, going back into things of archeology of the sea, which I have been so interested in, and the evolution of the design of ships at various places due to the kinds of woods they had and the kinds of water they had the fish or whatever it might be I'm not forgetting my Arabic numerals and so forth, but, just as I mentioned earlier, an archeology of the sea where I was very fundamentally aware as a sailor that in the, they were building ships in the Sea of Arabia, exactly as they described being built in the Bible.

When human beings did go out on the water and were safely back, they began to like that particular ship very, very much.

Fast Company posts tagged Buckminster Fuller | Fast Company

And you couldn't get those people who were building the ships, and sailing them, to change once they had found a fairly successful one. So, I found that the boats all around the world, they were quite different as you went around one cape into another the fishing conditions were different, the seas were different, the different woods to work with. And so they were fascinating to me, the different types there were around the world, but they had been holding steady for thousands of years. And I could see the interrelationship, and I could see which one came before the other.

So I saw then there really was a visible evolution, an archeology, and the sea was still operating over the thousands of years, and the land one was over long ago, and we're just unburying it uncovering it and trying to put some strands together. But this was something from which you could really get tremendous information from. The fact that you could carry those cargoes enormous distances, and that people were still using ships in exactly the same way they had been one can still go to India today and still see the numbers of the extraordinary boats of yesterday that have been running the monsoon seas for thousands of those captains say they have been sailing between Africa and India for 10, years.

That's their own reckoning. But there has been very, very little evolutionary change, and you learn exactly which ship has come before the other, and why they the kind of winds there were, the conditions that they did what they did, and so I became tremendously interested in being able to explain history from the water side in contradistinction to trying to piece it together archaeologically on the land side.

Though there were relatively few people there it had to make sense, it was an engineering kind of logic that would be much more revealing, I felt, than the kinds of things that people could make with their superstitions, and so forth on the land. They could kid themselves into even though this is historically the wait it was, it didn't necessarily have to be very logical. The, I come back to the abacus. I am quite confident, I spoke to you about the probability of life really beginning on those South Sea Islands, and what I'm going to explain to you now, is tending to prove to be correct.

My theory of a half century goes is getting to be very, highly substantiated. During World War I, beginning at the outset of World War I, the Germans controlled the Caroline Islands in the Pacific, and on one of the Caroline Islands I think it was the most eastward of them, the German commander suddenly found himself being the English ships would come in and take him over.

He wanted to get word quickly because World War I had not been announced. He wanted to get word to his commander who was on an island l, miles to the westward. There was a legend on the islands that the people, the sailors with their outrigger canoes, very fast-sailing prowers that they were able to go off shore, off of soundings, they could somehow or other were able to navigate, and So he gave a message to the leading navigator boatman there, and asked him if he could get this message to his commander 1, miles westward.

The answer came back in a few weeks. He had done so! This is the first time the Europeans ever knew that the Pacific Island sailors did know how to sail off soundings, and work on celestial navigation of some kind. There was an enormous European conceit that went along with the Magellans and the Drakes and so forth going around the world seeming to be very superior with their ships. And thinking about those naked people in the Pacific, "They don't know anything they are very ignorant people naked. Since World War II when the United States had a very large mandate to deal with in the Pacific, the navies had to do a great deal of work, and it is now generally conceded by the students of Maritime Science, that navigation clearly began in the South Seas, in the Pacific.

There are various things that I can tell you about this that are to me very fascinating, because I became a student of this subject. The, I'm going to take a large map of the world and we can go, for instance, to my map over here. The Pacific, the great Pacific basin, all this enormous area in here here we're looking at it, the South Seas are in here, and in this enormous Pacific basin there is something very important.

The language is all the same language for this enormous area.

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There are alliterations and dialects that come from it, but it is all one language. And then he went out to the East-West Institute in Hawaii, and he was a great expert on that language, and he also then, put the problem, then, into the computer. Because you can tell, if you are an expert in languages, what is an alliteration what is the prominent way of saying this and the ignorant way of saying it how things change.

Taking all the pronunciations of the Pacific and using vectors, he found that all the languages of the Pacific, which are all the same, all went back to the island of New Britain, just east of New Guinea right here. Now, in the you get into New Guinea and you get over a mountain, and there's another valley, and there's people. Valley after valley and there are hundreds and hundreds of tribes, all speaking completely different languages nothing to do with each other. The minute you get on the land, and the difficulty of getting from here to there, you get really, really separate languages.

But these water people all the same language due to the fact that they can go incredible distances on the sea. In the history of the Maori, who had been to Hawaii, and historically it is know that they made several trips from your friend Jim Michener wrote this beautiful book, HAWAII, they made several trips, times they had been up in the Pacific, and then gone back to New Zealand where their headquarters are now.

But those have been hundreds of years apart, before they've gone back to for the moment some kind of headquarters. Media playback is unsupported on your device. Related Topics Animal welfare Foxes Fox hunting. More on this story. Video Fox illegally kept captive ahead of Belvoir Hunt. Captive fox released from Buckminster Estate shed. League of Against Cruel Sports. Leicester live reporting Live Latest updates: Elsewhere on the BBC.

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